Solar system consists of Sun, eight planets, satellites, asteroids, comets and meteoroids. The eight planets can be counted as Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Kuiper Belt is located beyond Neptune which is similar to asteroid belt but it covers larger area and most of the comets comes from here. Pluto in 2006 by International Astronomical Union recognized as dwarf planet like Eris in this belt instead of counting as ninth planet.
It is formed about 4.6 billion years ago. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are terrestrial planets (inner planets) with their rocky surfaces whereas Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus (outer planets) composed of gas.
Asteroid Belt is located between Mars and Jupiter. On the contrary to icy meterials in the Kuiper Belt, It is composed of rocks and metal.
Things to know on the members of our solar system:
1-Sun: A star composed of hydrogen and helium gases.
2-Mercury: It is the closest planet to the Sun w,th a rocky surface. Slightly larger than Moon.
3-Venus : Second closest planet to the Sun. Also has a rocky surface.
4-Earth : It is located on the habitable zone in the solar system. It has a satellite.
5-Moon: Earth's satellite with its very thin athmosphere.
6-Mars: Also a rocky planet with its thin atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide and argon.
7-Asteroids: Located between Mars and Jupiter. Composed of rocky metals.
8-Meteorites: Meteors entering into the atmosphere of the planets.
9-Jupiter: A gas giant composed of hydrogen and helium.
10-Saturn: Also a gas giant with a icy ring around it.
11-Uranus: Composed of gases. Water, Methane, Ammonia.
12- Neptune: Another gas giant with 13 moons. It has also rings like Saturn.
13-Dwarf Planets: Most of them located in Kuiper Belt. They also orbit around Sun. Pluto is one of them since 2006
14- Comets: There are short and long-period comets. Short-period ones are located in Kuiper Belt and long periods in Oort Cloud.
Our Solar System is located in Orion Arm of Milky Way galaxy, currently in Local Interstellar Cloud.The location of solar system actually caused the peaceful evoluation of life.